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# Numbers in Kindergarten

KindergartenQuantities Within 10
Procedural KnowledgeDemonstrate early counting principles, including one-to-one correspondence, stable order, cardinality, order irrelevance, and abstraction.
Count within 10, forward and backward, starting at any number.
Relate a numeral, 1 to 10, to a specific quantity.
Explore different ways to represent whole numbers less than or equal to 10.
Build (compose) and break apart (decompose) quantities to 10 concretely.
Recognize at a glance the quantity in patterned and non-patterned sets to 5 (perceptual subitizing).
Conceptual KnowledgeQuantity is “how many”.
The purpose of counting is to determine how many (quantify).
Quantities can be represented in many ways.
Each object is counted once and only once (one-to-one correspondence).
The order of words used to count never changes (stable order).
The last number used to count represents the number of objects (cardinality).
The count stays the same regardless of the order in which the objects are counted (order irrelevance).
Anything can be counted (abstraction principle).
Essential SkillsNumber counting by 1’s, forward and backward.
Common MisconceptionsAny number different from 1 means many.
Counting needs to be in a specific order.
One can expect different counting results, when counting the same number of objects.
Big Ideas#3 – Any number can be represented in an infinite number of ways that have the same value.
#4 – Numbers can be compared by their relative values.
Key StrategiesExperience counting in different ways, in different orders and with different objects.
Count the same set of objects more than once and in different ways and verify the results.
Communicate counting experiences and explain counting approaches.
Pictorially represent a one-to-one correspondence to compare numbers, and explain it.
Key VocabularyOne, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten.
More than, fewer than, as many as.